Monkeypox vs Chickenpox: Key differences

Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although it is clinically less severe

| AUGUST 01, 2022, 07:55 PM IST
Monkeypox vs Chickenpox: Key differences

Skin rashes and fever, the common symptoms in both monkeypox and chickenpox have caused confusion among people although doctors have stressed that there is a difference in the way the symptoms of both viral diseases manifest in patients.

They have also advised to consult a doctor to dispel any doubts.

Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although it is clinically less severe.

In the rainy season, people are more prone to viral infections, and chickenpox cases are largely seen during this time along with other infections that also show symptoms like rashes and nausea, said Dr Ramanjit Singh, visiting consultant, dermatology, Medanta Hospital.

"Due to this situation, some patients are getting confused and misinterpret chickenpox with monkeypox. The patient may determine whether they have monkeypox or not by understanding the sequence and the onset of symptoms," Dr Ramanjit Singh said.

Explaining further, he said monkeypox usually starts with fever, malaise, headache, sometimes sore throat and cough, and lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) and all these symptoms appear four days prior to skin lesions, rashes and other problems which primarily start from hand and eyes and spread to the whole body.

Other experts agree and say that apart from skin involvement, there are other symptoms too in the case of monkeypox, but it is always better to consult a doctor to dispel any doubts.

In a couple of instances reported recently, two suspected cases of monkeypox turned out to be chickenpox.

A suspect case of monkeypox was admitted to the Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan Hospital (LNJP) in Delhi last week with fever and lesions, tested negative for the infection but was diagnosed with chickenpox. Similarly, an Ethiopian citizen, who had gone to Bengaluru was tested for monkeypox after he showed symptoms but his report confirmed that he had chickenpox.

India has so far reported four cases of monkeypox - three from Kerala and one from Delhi. Dr Satish Koul, Director, Internal Medicine, Fortis Memorial Research Institute said, "In monkeypox, the lesions are bigger than chickenpox. In monkeypox, the lesions are seen on palms and soles. In chickenpox, lesions are self-limiting after seven to eight days but not so in monkeypox. The lesions are vesicular and itchy in chicken pox. In monkeypox the lesions are broad, vesicular and non-itchy." Dr Satish Koul also said the duration of fever is longer in monkeypox and such a patient has enlarged lymph nodes.

Elaborating on the virus that causes chickenpox, Dr SCL Gupta, medical director of Batra Hospital, said chickenpox is a Ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus which is not as severe but it too leads to rashes on the skin. "This is the season of chickenpox. Usually, during monsoon, there is this dampness, rise in temperature, water logging, formation of moisture and wet clothes, all these leads to growth of the virus.

"Also, there is a religious aspect associated with the disease. People treat it like a 'goddess' and so such patients are not treated with any sort of medicines. They are kept in isolation and are given time to heal," he said.

Talking about monkeypox, Dr SCL Gupta explained that such virus requires an animal host but is self-limiting with sore throat, fever and normal virus signs.

"The main sign of this virus is the rashes on the body which have liquids inside. This leads to viral infection which weakens the body resistance. But problems arise due to its complication. In case, any bacterial infection gets pusses and leads to blisters leading further complication into the body. Right now, monkeypox is at its juvenile stage. We do not have proper treatment. We are just following the method of isolation and treating the suspected patient according to their symptoms. If there is a throat infection, we use the generic medicines that we usually take. So, here it is a case of symptomatic treatment," he said.

Doctors have also received queries that whether previous chickenpox infection makes a patient immune to monkeypox to which the answer is an emphatic no.

Dr Rajinder Kumar Singal, Senior Director and Head of Department, Internal Medicine, BLK Max Hospital, New Delhi, said both are caused by different viruses, the mode of transmission is different, and previous infection does not ensure any protection against the new one. But those who have received the smallpox vaccination have lesser chances of contracting monkeypox, he asserted.

"The smallpox vaccine was discontinued after the World Health Organisation (WHO) said the disease had been completely eradicated around 1979-80. People born before 1980 who have taken smallpox vaccine have lesser chances of contracting monkeypox. Both smallpox and monkeypox are caused by viruses of the same family," Dr Rajinder Kumar Singhal added.

Due to this similarity between smallpox and monkeypox, many countries have allowed the 'smallpox' vaccines to be given but in India, it is still not allowed. "The virus is at its juvenile stage and doctors are still figuring it out," Dr S C L Gupta added.

Monkeypox: Doctors debunk common myths

Monkeypox, as the name suggests is a viral disease which spreads from infected monkeys to human beings. It is quite similar to smallpox as the virus comes from the same family. Dr Surendra Kumar, Consultant, Internal Medicine, Accord Superspeciality Hospital, Faridabad said, “Few Rodents are also suspected to spread it. It spreads to humans through blood, fur or fluid of the infected animal. One person getting infected means that without adequate precaution it can take the shape of pandemic. This is precisely why we need to spread awareness.”

As Monkeypox cases get reported all over the world, there are a round of myths which are clouding people’s awareness of the disease. Dr Surendra Kumar and Dr RVS Bhalla, Director Internal Medicine, Fortis Escorts Hospital, Faridabad help debunk a few myths related to the disease.

Myth: It is a new virus.

Fact: Monkeypox virus is not a new virus, it is an old virus prevalent in African countries.

Myth: No treatment is available for Monkeypox.

Fact: It is a self-limiting disease in most cases, lesions heal by their own in three-four weeks’ time. The patient needs to stay hydrated and have antipyretics for fever and body ache. Besides nutrition support, skin and eye care should be done, some antivirals are recommended.

Myth: It is highly contagious.

Fact: The main mode of spread is prolonged contact between face to face, face to skin, and skin to skin. Droplets and fomites can also aid transmission. However, it is less contagious than other illnesses like Covid.

Myth: Smallpox vaccination does not give any protection.

Fact: Historically, prior to smallpox, vaccination has been shown to give up to 85% protection, but this has not been studied for the current cases.

Myth: Non-vegetarians will frequently get affected with monkeypox.

Fact: Eating non vegetarian food does not necessarily mean that one meal can contain the virus for Monkeypox. However, if non vegetarian food is uncooked or not cooked properly and if the animal was infected, the risk of infection goes up.

Myth: A person infected with Monkeypox is not required to be in isolation.

Fact: Infected people can easily spread the infection to other people. It is recommended to stay in an isolated room wearing all the protective gear since airborne droplets carrying the Monkeypox virus are heavier than covid-19, so they cannot travel long distances.

Myth: It can spread from humans to animals and vice versa.

Fact: Spread from humans to animals is not well documented. Spread from animals like monkeys, and rodents to humans have been documented.

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